Warpage Simulation

Virtual determination of warpage, spring-in, and residual stresses due to solidification and cooling.

Manufacturing of plastics, fiber-reinforced composites, and hybrids are often accompanied by process-induced deformations (PIDs) such as spring-in or warpage. Moreover, PIDs go along with residual stresses within the part. Both PIDs and residual stresses result from the thermal expansion and shrinkage during solidification and cooling.

Through thermomechanical analyses, these dimensional instabilities as well as residual stresses become predictable. Based on this, suitable remedies can be identified before real-world demonstrator manufacturing or manufacturing piloting.

Our approaches for the prediction of process-induced deformations (PIDs) are based on add-ons the commercial Finite Element solver ABAQUS/Standard and cover thermosets and thermoplastics, as well as neat polymers and fiber-reinforced composites (short, long, and continuous fiber-reinforcements).

Our services in this area include:

  • Quick estimation of PID for rough engineering analyses
  • Detailed prediction of solidification, PIDs, and residual stresses for the identification of suitable processing parameters and strategies
  • Creation of thermal (crystallization kinetics, curing)¬†and thermomechanical (thermal expansion, shrinkage, viscoelasticity) material cards
  • Tailoring of the SIMUTENCE simulation approaches for new processing strategies

Any questions?

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